(S&P) Bollinger Bands value as on 27/09/ are: Bollinger Upper Band: , Bollinger Middle Band: , Bollinger Lower Band: Below is the S&P Bollinger Band Chart for the last three years and S&P's historical Bollinger Band values. Interestingly, the average and median forward 6 and 12 month returns for the S&P following a calendar month where Bollinger Band width closed below 12% .
The charts use daily data, mostly from the US markets, and present a variety of technical analysis tools. Comments and suggestions are welcome: There are currently 25 charts in the package with more in the wings. The charts are divided into several sections based on the indices: Dow Jones Industrial Average 2.
These charts are useful for diagnosing tops and bottoms as well as locating Squeezes, which mark the beginnings of trends, and Bulges, which mark the ends of trends. These three charts are the core of our work. The VIX and its related products have become prime drivers of stock-market action; high levels indicate panic, low levels complacency. Chart five looks at the term structure of volatility and is a sentiment indictor. The comparison is day volatility estimates versus 3-month estimates.
The higher the indicator, the more bullish sentiment is; the lower, the more bearish. When the line is rising larger stocks are out-performing, when this line is falling the market's emphasis is on smaller stocks. Chart seven presents a timing tool developed by Chartcraft's Abe Cohen, the percent of stocks above a moving average.
Chartcraft calculated the percent of stocks over their day simple moving averages on the NYSE. We take a more modern approach, eliminating the non-operating companies found on the exchanges preferred stocks, bond funds, closed-end funds, etc. Chart eight has the advance-decline line in the indicator panel. The advance-decline line is a basic and valuable intermediate-term measure of the internal strength of the market.
It is the difference between the number of issues advancing on the day and those declining. Those differences are summed over time to create the indicator. The indicator in chart nine is a histogram with the percent of advancing stocks plotted above zero and the percent of declining stocks plotted below. There is a day moving average of the net of the two plotted in blue, which is a classic market timing tool that has gone by many names.
Chart ten presents a day advance-decline oscillator. The advance-decline oscillator is a classic short-term indicator of the market's internal strength that is often compared to price action with trading bands to generate buy and sell alerts. Chart eleven is a variation on chart ten that uses the volume of NYSE stocks up and down each day to create the oscillator instead of numbers of advances and declines.
Chart twelve features a display of the numbers of NYSE stocks making new week highs and lows each day. The green lines above zero are the number of stocks making new highs; the red lines below zero are the number of stocks making new lows. This is very valuable timing data from which a number of classic market-timing tools have been derived.
For example, one of the most important warnings of a market top is an expansion of new lows while the market continues higher or consolidates at a high level. This chart also features Bill Ohama's Titanic Syndrome signals. The signals are separated into those occurring prior to a week high, 'on board', and those occurring after, 'sinking'.
The High Low Index was one of the first broad-market indicators regularly used in market timing and has remained popular with market timers to this day. Recently Harold Parker and Mike Moody found this indicator to be useful as an overlay in their relative-strength research.
Crosses of 70 from above and 30 from below are the classic sell and buy signals. This indicator is not intuitively easy to grasp for many people. Traders are often inclined to use Bollinger Bands with other indicators to confirm price action. In particular, the use of oscillator-like Bollinger Bands will often be coupled with a non-oscillator indicator-like chart patterns or a trendline.
If these indicators confirm the recommendation of the Bollinger Bands, the trader will have greater conviction that the bands are predicting correct price action in relation to market volatility. Various studies of the effectiveness of the Bollinger Band strategy have been performed with mixed results. In , Lento et al. The authors did, however, find that a simple reversal of the strategy "contrarian Bollinger Band" produced positive returns in a variety of markets.
Similar results were found in another study, which concluded that Bollinger Band trading strategies may be effective in the Chinese marketplace, stating: A recent study examined the application of Bollinger Band trading strategies combined with the ADX for Equity Market indices with similar results.
A paper from uses Bollinger Bands to reduce variance in a Monte Carlo simulation used to forecast the Canadian treasury bill yield curve. In , Butler et al. Their results indicated that by tuning the parameters to a particular asset for a particular market environment, the out-of-sample trading signals were improved compared to the default parameters.
Companies like Forbes suggest that the use of Bollinger Bands is a simple and often an effective strategy but stop-loss orders should be used to mitigate losses from market pressure. Security price returns have no known statistical distribution , normal or otherwise; they are known to have fat tails , compared to a normal distribution.
Such techniques usually require the sample to be independent and identically distributed, which is not the case for a time series like security prices. Just the opposite is true; it is well recognized by practitioners that such price series are very commonly serially correlated [ citation needed ] —that is, each price will be closely related to its ancestor "most of the time". Adjusting for serial correlation is the purpose of moving standard deviations , which use deviations from the moving average , but the possibility remains of high order price autocorrelation not accounted for by simple differencing from the moving average.
For such reasons, it is incorrect to assume that the long-term percentage of the data that will be observed in the future outside the Bollinger Bands range will always be constrained to a certain amount. Practitioners may also use related measures such as the Keltner channels , or the related Stoller average range channels, which base their band widths on different measures of price volatility, such as the difference between daily high and low prices, rather than on standard deviation.
Bollinger bands have been applied to manufacturing data to detect defects anomalies in patterned fabrics. The International Civil Aviation Organization is using Bollinger bands to measure the accident rate as a safety indicator to measure efficacy of global safety initiatives.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kirkpatrick and Julie R. Applied Financial Economics Letters. Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics.
Bollinger Bands and the ADX". International Federation of Technical Analysts Journal: Particle Swarm Optimization of Bollinger Bands. International Conference on Swarm Intelligence.
Breakout Dead cat bounce Dow theory Elliott wave principle Market trend.
Bollinger Bands display a graphical band the envelope maximum and minimum of moving averages , similar to Keltner or Donchian channels and volatility expressed by the width of the envelope in one two-dimensional chart. If and fall into the bullish camp, the major U.
It is a smoothing of the lesser of the number of issues making new highs or new lows each day. The labels are ranked and colored by short-term momentum.